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首页 URDG758见索即付保函统一规则[中英对照].pdf

URDG758见索即付保函统一规则[中英对照].pdf.pdf

URDG758见索即付保函统一规则[中英对照].pdf

黄红霞
2019-08-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《URDG758见索即付保函统一规则[中英对照].pdfpdf》,可适用于农林牧渔领域

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URDGTheURDGaretheUniformRulesforDemandGuarantees‐effectiveJulyForewordThisrevisionofICC#sUniformRulesforDemandGuarantees(URDG)isthefirstsincetherulesweredevelopedbyICCinTheoriginalrules,URDG,gainedbroadinternationalacceptanceinrecentyearsfollowingtheirincorporationbytheWorldBankinitsguaranteeformsandtheirendorsementbyUNCITRALandleadingindustryassociations,suchasFIDICThisfirstrevisionoftheruleswasmeticulouslypreparedoveraperiodoftwoandahalfyears,andistheresultofacollectiveeffortbyanumberofICCconstituentgroupsItwasdevelopedasajointprojectbytwoICCcommissions‐theBankingCommissionandtheCommissiononCommercialLawandPractice‐thereforetakingintoaccountthelegitimateexpectationsofallrelevantsectorsICCnationalcommitteescontributedsubstantiallytothefinalproduct:somenationalcommitteessubmittedseveralhundredpagesofvaluablesuggestionsonsuccessivedrafts,anumberofwhichwereincorporatedintothefinaltextTheICCTaskForceonGuarantees,whichconsistedofmembersfromcountries,reviewedthevariousdraftsandaddedtheirownsuggestionsTheURDGDraftingGroup,ablychairedbyDrGeorgesAffaki,metonanumberofoccasions,carefullyreviewedallcommentssubmittedbynationalcommitteesandtheTaskForceanddevelopedthefinaldraftThiscollectiveefforthasbornefruitithasproducedrulesthatreflectabroadconsensusamongbankers,usersandallmembersoftheguaranteecommunityInfact,thepresentrevisionoftheURDGdoesnotmerelyupdatetheexistingrulesItistheresultofanambitiousprojecttocreateanewsetofrulesforthetwenty‐firstcenturythatisclearer,morepreciseandmorecomprehensiveAssuch,URDGisdestinedtobecomethestandardtextfordemandguaranteesworldwideJeanRozwadowskiSecretaryGeneralInternationalChamberofCommerceJanuaryIntroductionThenewURDGsucceedURDGOveryearsofpractice(‐),URDGprovedtobebothsuccessfulandreliableTheywereusedbybanksandbusinessesacrosscontinentsandindustrysectorsURDGwereendorsedbyinternationalorganizations,multilateralfinancialinstitutions,bankregulators,lawmakersandprofessionalfederationsIncontrasttothefailedUniformRulesforContractGuarantees(URCG),URDGreflectedtherealityoftheinternationaldemandguaranteemarketandstruckthemostreasonablebalancebetweentheinterestsofallthepartiesinvolvedBychoosingtoinstructaguarantortoissueademandguaranteesubjecttoURDG,applicantsrenouncedtheirabilitytoobstructpaymentforreasonsderivedfromtheirrelationshipwiththebeneficiaryInturn,beneficiarieswereexpectedtostateingeneralterms‐butnottojustify,establishorprove‐thenatureoftheapplicant#sbreachintheperformanceoftheunderlyingrelationshipFinally,becauseademandguaranteeisanindependentundertaking,guarantorswereassuredthattheircommitmentwassubjecttoitsowntermsTheywereinsulatedfromtheperformancecontingenciesoftheunderlyingrelationshipTheirincrementaluse,backedbythesupportofICC,enabledURDGtomakeacriticalcontributiontowardslevellingtheplayingfieldamongdemandguaranteeissuersandusersregardlessofthelegal,economicorsocialsysteminwhichtheyoperateYet,URDGformedthefirstattemptbyICCtocodifyindependentguaranteepracticeOvertheyears,theapplicationoftheirprovisionsshedlightontheneedfordraftingadjustments,clarifications,expansionofscopeorclearcorrectionsoftheadoptedstandardViewsreportedtotheICCTaskForceonGuaranteesfromURDGusersworldwideprovidedthenecessarymaterialtolauncharevisionofURDGthatboththelapseoftimeandtheevolutionofpracticemadenecessaryTherevisionwaslaunchedinandwasconductedundertheaegisofboththeICCBankingCommissionandtheCommissiononCommercialLawandPractice(CLP)TheICCTaskForceonGuarantees,thestandingexpertbodycreatedbyICCintomonitorinternationalguaranteepractice,actedasaconsultativebodytoaDraftingGroupthatproducedfivecomprehensivedraftsduringthetwoandahalfyearrevisionprocessEachdraftwassubmittedforreviewandcommentstoICCnationalcommitteesOversetsofcommentswerereceivedfromatotalofcountriesandwerethoroughlyexaminedThesecommentswereinstrumentalinshapingthenewrulesRegularprogressreportswerepresentedtomeetingsofeachoftheICCcommissionsconsideringtherulesandwerecomprehensivelydebatedThismethodensuredthattherevisiontakesintoaccountviewsreceivedfromabroadcross‐sectorofconcernedpartiesTheresultingURDGwereadoptedbytheICCExecutiveBoardonDecember,followingendorsementbythemembersofthetwosponsoringcommissionsTheywillcomeintoforceonJuly,Thenewrulesapplytoanydemandguaranteeorcounter‐guaranteewhereincorporatedbyreferenceinthetextTheycanalsoapplyastradeusageorbyimplicationfromaconsistentcourseofdealingbetweenthepartiestothedemandguaranteeorcounter‐guaranteewheresoprovidedbytheapplicablelawThenewURDGdonotmerelyupdateURDGtheyaretheresultofanambitiousprocessthatseekstobringanewsetofrulesfordemandguaranteesintothestcentury,rulesthatareclearer,morepreciseandmorecomprehensiveClearerURDGThenewURDGaimforclarityTheyadoptthedraftingstyleofICC#suniversallyacceptedUniformRulesforDocumentaryCredits(UCP)bybringingtogetherthedefinitionsoftermsinonearticleTheyalsobringamuchneededclarificationoftheprocessaccordingtowhichapresentationwillbecheckedforconformityMorepreciseURDGAnumberofthestandardscontainedinURDGleftamarginforinterpretationthatvariedaccordingtotheparticularfactsofthecaseThiswasparticularlytrueforthetermsreasonabletimeandreasonablecareThenewURDGhaveexcludedallimprecisestandardswithanaimtofostercertaintyandpredictabilityExamplesaretimedurationsfortheexaminationofademand,theextensionofaguaranteeinthecaseofforcemajeure,andthesuspensionoftheguaranteeinthecaseofanextendorpaydemandMorecomprehensiveURDGImportantpracticeswereleftoutofURDGThiswasparticularlythecasefortheadviceofaguarantee,amendments,standardsforexaminationofpresentations,partial,multipleandincompletedemands,linkageofdocuments,andtransferofguaranteesInaddition,therewasonlyfragmentarytreatmentofcounter‐guaranteesWhatwasunderstandableatthetimeofthefirstattempttocodifydemandguaranteepracticecannolongerbeacceptedyearslaterThenewURDGnowcoverallofthesepracticesandmakeclearthatprovisionsgoverningguaranteesapplyequallytocounter‐guaranteesBalancedURDGThenewURDGendorseandbuildonthebalancedapproachthatcharacterizedURDGForexample:‐Thebeneficiaryisentitledtopaymentuponpresentationofacomplyingdemandwithouttheneedfortheguarantortoseektheapplicant#sapprovalThenewURDGalsocorrectanunfairsituationthatwouldhaveleftthebeneficiarywithoutrecoursetotheguaranteeinthecaseofforcemajeureifitsexpirycoincidedwiththeinterruptionoftheguarantor#sbusiness‐Theguarantor#sindependentroleisexpressedinstrongerandclearertermsand,moreimportantly,itisnowexpressedinexclusivelydocumentarytermsThenewURDGexpecttheguarantortoactdiligentlyForinstance,aguarantorisexpectedtorejectanon‐complyingdemandwithinfivebusinessdaysbysendingarejectionnoticethatlistsallofthediscrepanciesotherwise,theguarantorwillbeprecludedfromclaimingthatthedemandisnon‐complyingandwillbecompelledtopayLargelyacceptedindocumentarycreditpracticeundertheUCP,thepreclusionsanctionisnecessarytodisciplineunfairpracticesthatworktothedetrimentofthebeneficiary‐Theapplicant#srighttobeinformedoftheoccurrenceofthekeystagesinthelifecycleoftheguaranteeisacknowledgedinthenewrulesHowever,thisinformationshouldnotbeaprerequisiteforpaymentwhenacomplyingdemandispresentedInnovativeURDGThenewURDGfeatureanumberofinnovationsdictatedbythedevelopmentofpracticeandtheneedtoavoiddisputesAnexampleisthenewrulethatproposesasubstitutionofcurrencieswhenpaymentinthecurrencyspecifiedintheguaranteebecomesimpossibleAnotherexampleisthenewterminationmechanismforguaranteesthatstateneitheranexpirydatenoranexpiryeventThissolutionisexpectedtoreducethenumberofopen‐endedguaranteesthatseverelypenalizeapplicantsandareincompatiblewiththebanks#capitalrequirementsTheGuideTherationale,preparatoryworkandinterpretationofeacharticleofthenewURDGcanbefoundinaseparatelyreleasedGuidetotherules(ICCPublicationNo)ThenewURDGpackageThenewrulesareaccompaniedbyamodelguaranteeandcounter‐guaranteeformfeaturedattheendofthispublicationTheyaredestinedtoevolveintoanindispensablecompaniontothenewURDGandtheirusersExperienceshowsthatacomprehensiveready‐to‐usepackagethatcombinesboththerulesandmodelformsismoreattractivetousersthanthepreviouslyseparateICCpublicationsNosandItshouldalsobeconducivetomoreharmonizedapracticeIndraftingthenewURDGmodelguaranteeform,aunitaryapproachwaspreferredtoonethatwouldhaveconsistedofmultipleformslinkedtothepurposeofeachguaranteeTender,performance,advancepayment,retentionmoney,warrantyandothertypesofdemandguaranteessharethesamenatureandhavesimilarfeaturesThiswasevidencedbythefivenearlyidenticalbasicmodelguaranteeformsinICCpublicationNothataccompaniedURDGOfcourse,URDGusershavetheoptionofenrichingtheunitarymodelformwithoneormoreoftheclausesproposedattheendofthispublicationsuchasthereductionofamountclauseforadvancepaymentguaranteesorevendraftinganyotherclauseoutrightAfinalmessage:theneedforcleardraftingCleardraftingisthelinchpinofasuccessfulinternationaldemandguaranteepracticeThishasproventobethecaseovertimeandacrossculturesandindustrysectorsUsingthenewURDGmodelguaranteeformlevelstheplayingfieldandavoidsmisunderstandingsAssuch,itwillhopefullysignificantlycurbtheworryingtendencythatafewcourtshaveshowninrecentyearstore‐

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